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 Previous Return to 2ndSamuel



The Reverberations after David’s Sin

II Samuel 12:15-31

Victor M. Eskew


1.      Outline:


i.                    A CHILD DIES (II Sam. 12:15-23)

ii.                  A CHILD IS BORN (II Sam 12:24-25)

iii.                A CITY IS TAKEN (II Sam 12:26-31)


2.      Where did Nathan go after his rebuke of David? (II Sam. 12:15)


And Nathan departed unto his house…


A.    Unto his house


3.      Who struck David’s child so that it was very sick? (II Sam. 12:15)


And the Lord struck the child that Uriah’s wife bare unto David, and it was very sick.


A.    The Lord


B.      This was a consequence of David’s sin (See II Sam. 12:14b).


…the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die.


1.      A death occurred due to the sin of adultery.

2.      The enemies of God would no longer blaspheme upon hearing of the death of the child.

3.      God could spare David and still maintain His righteousness.

4.      David and Bathsheba would both be punished for their transgression.


C.     Question:  Man wonders:  “Why would God cause the child to die since he was innocent?”

1.      As God, He can do as He pleases with his creation.

2.      The child was spared a life of difficulty growing up in the house of David.

3.      “…taking the child to be with him was the very best thing that could have happened to the child” (Waldron, p. 803).


4.      T – F    David besought the Lord for the child. (II Sam. 12:16).


David therefore besought God for the child…


A.    Besought

1.      Strong (1245)  to search out…by prayer, to strive after

2.      BDB:  to seek…desire…request


B.      David knew where to turn for help.

1.      Psalm 46:1


God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.


2.      Psalm 121:1

I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help.


C.     LESSON:  David is very bold in approaching God about this matter.  This is a problem he created.  It involves a divine sentence from God.  Yet, he still turns to God for help (Heb. 4:16).


Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.


5.      “…and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the earth.” (II Sam. 12:16)


A.    Some periods in our lives involve times when we do not eat.  One of those is times of deep agony and despair.


B.      David “lay groundward (on the floor) in abject surrender to the Lord’s chastening rod” (Waldron, p. 804).


6.      Who attempted to raise David up from the earth? (II Sam. 12:17)


And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, to raise him up from the earth…


A.    The elders of his house


B.      The older, wiser, servants who had been with David for a long time in whom he often confided (See Gen. 24:2).


And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh.


7.      T – F    David listened to the elders and rose and ate bread. (II Sam. 12:17)


…but he would not, neither did he eat bread with them.


A.    False


B.      This indicates the intensity of David’s request unto God.  Even his most trusted and influential servants could not prevail with him.


8.      How long much time passed before the child died?” (II Sam. 12:18)


And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died…


A.    On the seventh day.


B.      Seven days between the beginning of an illness and death is short.  Seven days lying prostrate before God pleading for the life of a child can be an eternity.


9.      T – F    David’s servant feared to tell David about the child’s death.  (II Sam. 12:18).


And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead…


A.    True


10.  Why were they fearful? (II Sam. 12:18)


…for they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spake unto him, and he would not hearken unto our voice:  how will he then vex himself, if we tell him that the child is dead?


A.    When David learned of the child’s sickness, he was distraught and refused to eat.


B.      The servants believed that news of the death would take an even great toll on David.  “How will he then vex himself?” they asked.


C.     Vex:  The word is a combination of two wordS indicating behavior that is bad, unpleasant, disagreeable, sad, and unhappy.


11.  What caused David to know the child had died? (II Sam. 12:19)


But when David saw that he servants whispered, David perceived that the child was dead…


A.    David saw his servantS whispering among themselves.


B.      The words, “David saw,” are interesting.  He saw whispering.  He probably also saw their body language:  concern, fear, etc.  Whatever he saw caused him to realize the baby had died.


12.  T- F     David asked whether the child had died.  (II Sam. 12:19)


…therefore David said unto his servants, Is the child dead?


A.    True


13.  T – F    David’s servants lied to David about the child. (II Sam. 12:19)


…And they said, He is dead.


A.    False


14.  What four things did David do when he learned about the death of the child? (II Sam. 12:20)


Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and come into the house of God, and worshiped:  then he came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat.


A.    He washed


B.      He anointed himself


C.     He changed his apparel


D.    He came into the house of God to worship


E.      LESSON:  Death is a horrible experience.  It is a loss.  However, when the righteous lose someone to death who is a saved individual, our reaction ought to be like that of David.  We need to be able to carry on with life.  After death, we cannot change the situation.


15.  T – F    David’s servants were confused by his actions.  (II Sam. 12:21).


Then said his servants unto him, What thing is this that thou has done?  thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive:  but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread.


A.    True


B.      The servants thought that the death of the child would be worse to David than the sickness.  However, David’s actions were better after the child died than they were before.


16.  How did David explain his actions to his servants? (II Sam. 12:22-23a)


And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept:  for I said, Who can tell whether God will be gracious to me, that the child may live?  But now he is dead, wherefore should I fast?...


A.    While the child was living there was hope.  God might hear David’s prayer and be gracious to him. 


B.      However, once the child was dead, hope was gone.  There was no bringing the child back.


17.  “…I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me” (II Sam. 12:23b).



1.      The child was not “lost” and going to hell.  If so, then, David must have been referring to his going to hell to be with the child.

2.      God did not answer David’s prayer positively.  He was hoping the Lord would be gracious, but he was not.  God had a higher purpose that involved the death of the child.


18.  After the child’s death, “David comforted Bathsheba his wife” (II Sam. 12:24)


A.    This was the second big loss that Bathsheba had suffered:  Uriah and the child.


B.      Comforted

1.      Strong (5162):  to sigh, to be sorry, to pity, to console

2.      BDB:  to be sorry, console, comfort, to have compassion


C.     LESSON:  David knew that this was a difficult loss for Bathsheba.  It was her first child.  It was a son.  This death added to the sorrow she felt over the loss of her husband and possibly over the grief she experienced due to the sin she and David committed.


19.  T – F    David and Bathsheba had another son. (II Sam. 12:24)


...and went in unto her, and lay with her:  and she bare a son…


A.    True


20.  What was the child named? (II Sam. 12:24)


…and he called his name Solomon…


A.    Solomon



B.      Meaning: 

1.      Strong (8010):  peaceful

2.      BDB:  peace


C.     Thoughts about this name:

1.      Clarke says that this name is almost prophetic in nature because of the continuous peace that Solomon would experience during his reign as king.

2.      K&D suggest that he received this name because David now regarded himself as being at peace with God again.

3.      Being able to have another child often brings peace the parents after they have lost one.


21.  “…and the Lord loved him.” (II Sam. 12:24)


A.    David and Bathsheba with a son whom God loved and to whom He would give the kingdom.


B.      What caused God to love Solomon so much that it is noted in the Scripture?


C.     One stated that this was noted because God had forgiven David and had now blessed the union between David and Bathsheba in giving them a child.


22.  Who sent Nathan to David again? (II Sam. 12:25)


And he sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet…


A.    God sent Nathan to David.


23.  What did the Lord name the child? (II Sam. 12:25)


…and he called his name Jedidiah, because of the Lord.


A.    Jedidiah


B.      The meaning of the name:

1.      Strong (3041):  beloved of Jah

2.      BDB: beloved of Jehovah


C.     K&D:  “The idea is this: Nathan came to David according to Jehovah's instructions, and gave Solomon the name Jedidiah for Jehovah's sake, i.e., because Jehovah loved him. The giving of such a name was a practical declaration on the part of Jehovah that He loved Solomon, from which David could and was intended to discern that the Lord had blessed his marriage with Bathsheba. Jedidiah, therefore, was not actually adopted as Solomon's name” (e-sword).


24.  Who took the city of Rabbah? (II Sam. 12:26).


And Joab fought against Rabbah of the children of Ammon…


A.    Joab


B.      Two verses:

1.      II Samuel 11:1


And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah.


2.      II Samuel 12:25


Then David said unto the messenger, Thus shalt thou say unto Joab, Let not this thing displease thee, for the sword devoureth one as well as another:  make thy battle more strong against the city, and overthrow it:  and encourage thou him.


C.     The battle took a long time.  David’s sin, the birth of the child, and rebuke by Nathan, and the death of the child all happened while Israel was fighting against Rabbah.


25.  How is the city described? (II Sam. 12:26)


…and took the royal city.


A.    This was the capital city.  It was the city in which the king resided.


B.      Picture of Rabbah


Rabbah The Capital Of Ammon | Bible Reading Archeology


26.  Who did Joab inform about his taking the city? (II Sam. 12:27)


And Joab sent messengers to David, and said…


A.    To David



27.  How is the city described in II Sam. 12:27?


…I have fought against Rabbah, and have taken the city of waters.


A.    The city of waters


B.      Some believe the text should be translated:  “I have taken, or, cut off, the waters of the city.”

1.      Josephus:  “having cut off their waters” (Antiq. lib vii., cap 7)

2.      Having taken the water supply, it would not take long for the city to surrender to Joab.

3.      This is a very common tactic in warfare.


28.  If David did not come and encamp against the city, whose name would the city be called after? (II Sam. 12:28)


Now therefore gather the rest of the people together, and encamp against the city, and take it:  lest I take the city, and it be called after my name.


A.    It would have been called by Joab’s name.


B.      The glory of the conquest of that city would have gone to Joab instead of David since David would not be present at its capture if he refused to come.


29.  T – F    David refused to go to Rabbah? (II Sam. 12:29)


And David gathered all the people together, and went to Rabbah, and fought against it, and took it.


A.    Remember, David is a well-trained and seasoned commander of the army.


B.      Once he arrived at the battle, he could have directed the final parts of the battle to completion.


30.  What did David put on his head? (II Sam. 12:30)


And he took their king’s crown from off his head, the weight whereof was a talent of gold with the precious stones:  and it was set on David’s head.


A.    The king’s crown


31.  What was the weight of the crown? (II Sam. 12:30)


…the weight whereof was a talent of gold with precious stones…


A.    The actual weight of a talent of gold was between 85 and 100 pounds.


B.      We could substitute the word “worth” for weight and get the sense of the phrase.  Its worth was like unto a talent of gold.  It was a very expensive, magnificent crown. 


32.  “…And he brought forth the spoil of the city in great abundance.” (II Sam. 12:30)


A.    The capital city would have been quite large.


B.      The residents who dwelled in the capital city were the prominent and the wealthy.


C.     We have seen the words “great” and “abundance” used before.  They indicate a ridiculous amount.  It would have been almost an incomprehensible amount.  It would add to the worth of David’s kingdom.


33.  What four things did David do to the people of the city? (II Sam. 12:31)


And he brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brick kiln…


A.    Put them under saws


B.      Put them under harrows of iron


C.     Put them under axes of iron


D.    Made them pass through the brick kiln


E.      NOTE:

1.      I Chronicles 20:3


And he brought out the people that were in it, and cut them with saws, and with harrows of iron, and with axes.


2.      Clarke argues that the verb in the text means that David made the people slaves and employed them in sawing, harrowing, chopping with axes, and in making bricks.



34.  T – F    He did this to all the cities of the children of Ammon. (II Sam. 12:31).


…and they did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon…


A.    True


35.  Where did David and all the people return to? (II Sam. 12:31)


So David and all the people returned unto Jerusalem.


A.    Jerusalem


















The Rape of Tamar

II Samuel 13:1-19


Victor M. Eskew


1.      Outline:


iv.                II SAMUEL 13:1-2

v.                  II SAMUEL 13:3-5

vi.                II SAMUEL 13:6-7

vii.              II SAMUEL 13:8-14

viii.            II SAMUEL 13:15-18

ix.                II SAMUEL 13:19


2.      Who had a fair sister? (II Sam. 13:1)


3.      What was the woman’s name? (II Sam. 13:1)


4.      Who loved her? (II Sam. 13:1)


5.      T – F    Amnon loved Tamar so much that he fell sick for his sister. (II Sam. 13:2)


6.      Why was it difficult for Amnon to do anything to Tamar? (II Sam. 13:2)


7.      Who was Amnon’s friend? (II Sam. 13:3)


8.      How was he kin to David? (II Sam. 13:3)


9.      How is he described? (II Sam. 13:3)


10.  What did Jonadab mean when he said Amnon was “lean from day to day”? (II Sam. 13:4)


11.  How did Amnon explain his affliction to Jonadab? (II Sam. 13:4)


12.  What plan of action did Jonadab suggest to Amnon? (II Sam. 13:5)


13.  T – F    Amnon refused the plan suggested by Jonadab. (II Sam. 13:6)


14.  T – F    Jonadab’s plan worked. (II Sam. 13:6)


15.  What did David ask Tamar to do? (II Sam. 13:7)


16.  T – F    Tamar made and baked the cakes and gave them to Amnon.  (II Sam. 13:8-9a)


17.  T – F    Amnon ate all of the cakes Tamar prepared? (II Sam. 13:9)


18.  Who did Amnon want removed from the room? (II Sam. 13:9)


19.  How did Amnon get Tamar into his chamber alone? (II Sam. 13:10)


20.  What did Amnon do to Tamar when she brought cakes in for him to eat? (II Sam. 13:11)


21.  How did Tamar react to Amnon’s advances? (II Sam. 13:12)


22.  “…no such thing ought to be done in _______________:  do not thou this ________” (II Sam. 13:12).


23.  What did Tamar mean when she said:  “And I, whither shall I cause my shame to go?” (II Sam. 13:13)


24.  If Amnon did this what would he become? (II Sam. 13:13)


25.  To whom did Tamar tell Amnon to speak about this matter? (II Sam. 13:13)


26.  T – F    Amnon listened to the word of Tamar. (II Sam. 13:14)


27.  What did Amnon do to Tamar? (II Sam. 13:14)


28.  “Then Amnon _________________ her _______________...” (II Sam. 13:15)


29.  T – F    He now hated her more than he had loved her previously. (II Sam. 13:15)


30.  What did Amnon order Tamar to do? (II Sam. 13:15)


31.  How did Tamar respond to Amnon’s order for her to leave? (II Sam. 13:16)


32.  T – F    This time Amnon listened to Tamar’s words. (II Sam. 13:16)


33.  What did Amnon tell the servant to do? (II Sam. 13:17)


34.  What kind of garment did Tamar have on? (II Sam. 13:18)


35.  What did her garment indicate? (II Sam. 13:18)


36.  T – F    The servant obeyed Amnon. (II Sam. 13:18)


37.  What four things did Tamar do? (II Sam. 13:19)